In: Leca J-B, Huffman MA, Vasey PL (eds) The monkeys of Stormy Mountain: 60 years of primatological research on the Japanese macaques of Arashiyama. Species that live closer to humans take advantage of cro… These compounds augment immunoglobulin M and G values and show significant inhibitory effects on the pathogens Bacillus anthracis, Proteusbacillus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. Winter and spring, the mating and birth seasons, respectively, could be potentially key seasons for investigating the parasite infection status of individuals before and after the ingestion of these plant species. Analysis of the diet of Yulinkeng 1 (YA1) troop was based on a plant food list previously published by You et al. Therefore, including this species in the diet could have some sex steroid-like properties that have a role in modifying female reproductive status after birth. 9 °C). MAH also thanks Yamato Tsuji and Massimo Bardi for their statistical advice and comments on the manuscript. 2011; Liu et al. While no clear-cut seasonal trend for medicinal food ingestion was apparent in the YA1 troop diet, the relationship between medicinal properties of five specific medicinal food species and their seasonality of use provides information for future detailed investigation. Hence, both male and female Tibetan macaque reproductive biology and behavior might be influenced by the inclusion in the diet of plants that have been shown in other species to influence reproductive hormones. The site is situated at an elevation of approximately 1840 m above sea level, and the year is divided into four seasons: winter (December to February), spring (March to May), summer (June to August), and autumn (September to November). 2011), suggesting an origin for the use of this plant from watching the behavior of animals. Effective against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains and biofilm infection of S. aureus. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Seven isoflavones have been isolated from the stem and identified as 6-ethoxyca lpogonium isoflavone A, durmillone, ichthynone, jamaicin, toxicaro l isoflavone, barbigerone, and genistein (Gong et al. Their diets usually contain fruits, berries, buds, roots, leaves, and more. Huangshan is limited to spring, the birth season of this troop. Not Sci Biol 7:171–176, Alados CL, Huffman MA (2000) Fractal long-range correlations in behavioural sequences of wild chimpanzees: a non-invasive analytical tool for the evaluation of health. Here we focused on identifying prospective medicinal foods in the diet, in order to investigate the potential properties and possible roles of such items for the YA1 troop of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. (13.16%), and other species of lower prevalence. Experimental studies have demonstrated significant enhancement of reproductive function, including increased sperm count, testosterone levels, and enhanced erectile function in rats (Chen et al. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 119–130, Wallis J (1994) Socioenvironmental effects on full anogenital swellings in adolescent female chimpanzees. 2016). Primates 38(2):111–125, Huffman MA, Ohigashi H, Kawanaka M et al (1998) African great ape self-medication: a new paradigm for treating parasite disease with natural medicines? Folia Primatol 64:153–157, Ogawa H (1995b) Recognition of social relationships in bridging behavior among Tibetan macaques (, Ohigashi H, Huffman MA, Izutsu D, Koshimizu K, Kawanaka M, Sugiyama H, Kirby GC, Warhurst DC, Allen D, Wright CW, Phillipson JD, Timmon-David P, Delmas F, Elias R, Balansard G (1994) Toward the chemical ecology of medicinal plant use in chimpanzees: the case of, Oyeyemi IT, Akinlabi AA, Adewumi A, Aleshinloye AO, Oyeyemi OT (2018), Pan Y, Wang F-M, Quang L-Q, Zhang D-M, Kong L-D (2010) Icariin attenuates chronic mild stress-induced dysregulation of the LHPA stress circuit in rats. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. For the most part they are vegetarians, eating fruit, leaves, and occasionally bamboo or grass. and 4.89, respectively; F(2, 484) = 13.24, p < .001; see The most common macaque … The analysis showed that gut microbial diversity and composition varied by season. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Etkin NL (1996) Medicinal cuisines: diet and ethnopharmacology. Science 191:98–100, Sun B, Wang X, Bernstein S, Huffman MA, Dong-Po Xia D-P, Gu Z, Chen R, Sheeran LK, Wagner RS, Li J (2016) Marked variation between winter and spring gut microbiota in free-ranging Tibetan Macaques (, Sun B-H, Gu Z, Wang X, Huffman MA, Garber PA, Sheeran LK, Zhang D, Zhu Y, Xia D-P, Li J-H (2018) Season, age, and sex affect the fecal mycobiota of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (, Takeshita RSC, Huffman MA, Bercovitch FB, Mouri K, Shimizu K (2013) The influence of age and season on fecal dehyroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in Japanese macaques (, Takeshita RSC, Bercovitch FB, Huffman MA, Mouri K, Garcia C et al (2014) Environmental, biological, and social factors influencing fecal adrenal steroid concentrations in female Japanese macaques (, Takeshita RSC, Bercovitch FB, Kinoshita K, Huffman MA (2018) Beneficial effects of hot springs bathing on stress levels in Japanese macaques. Int J Primatol 22:329–346, Huffman MA, MacIntosh AJJ (2012) Plant-food diet of the Arashiyama Japanese macaques and its potential medicinal value. 2006). The medicinal diet of macaques as a parasite control strategy: is there a case for Tibetan macaques? The diet is neither intended as a health regimen, nor explicitly, as some have claimed, as an expression of a “middle way” between indulgence and asceticism. Anti-HSV-1 activity and anti-gastric carcinoma and anti-colon carcinoma HT-29 activity have been reported. Evidence for food, cooking and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus. 2003; Huffman 1997, 2011; Ndagurwa 2012). Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Of all these ingested items, 198 (from 135 species) were found to have reported antiparasitic properties. 2017). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 340–353, Huffman MA (2016) An ape’s perspective on the origins of medicinal plant use in humans. Cooling effect when rubbed on the bodies of smallpox patients, Radical scavenging activity and protection against KBrO3-mediated kidney damage. It has been argued that we have inherited many of the same ways to combat common diseases in the environment (Huffman 2016). The seasonal timing of the consumption of this plant is preceded by a decline in ejaculatory mating frequency at the end of the mating season in late winter. While the actual medicinal benefits to macaques gained from ingesting these plants are yet unknown, based on the available evidence for their parasite infection ecology, reproductive behavior, and possible stress reduction, we hypothesize on the possible scope of self-medication in Tibetan macaques and suggest future avenues for research. USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-310. The leaves are crushed and pulverized for external application on wounds (Find Me A Cure.com), while a decoction of the whole plant is used to treat coughing in tuberculosis patients and is a treatment against dysentery and enteritis. 2003; gorillas Gorilla gorilla and G. beringei, Cousins and Huffman 2002; chimpanzees Pan troglodytes, Huffman 1997, 2003; Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata, Huffman and MacIntosh 2012; MacIntosh and Huffman 2010; various ungulate species, Mukherjee et al. Previous studies on primate diet, from the perspective of “medicinal foods” (plants with bioactive, physiology-modifying properties) selection, have found that 15–25% of the plant items in their diet could be classified as medicinal food. University of Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, pp 25–32, Wallis J (1995) Seasonal influence on reproduction in chimpanzees of Gombe National Park. Brack M (2008) Oesophagostomiasis. Part of Springer Nature. Primates 34(4):431–444, Zhou H-T, Cao J-M, Lin Q et al (2013) Effect of, Zhou J, Wang Y-S, Wu Z-G (2014) Study of medicinal value of, Zhu Y, Ji H, Li J-H, Xia D-P, Sun B-H, Xu Y-R, Kyes RC (2012) First report of the wild Tibetan macaque (, The Behavioral Ecology of the Tibetan Macaque, https://www.socscistatistics.com/tests/chisquare2/Default2.aspx, https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.eazwv.org/resource/resmgr/Files/Transmissible_Diseases_Handbook/Fact_Sheets/116_Oesophagostomiasis.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1302482, https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_rp310.pdf, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, International Collaborative Research Center for Huangshan Biodiversity and Tibetan Macaque Behavioral Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27920-2_12, Appendix: Plant Secondary Metabolites in Plant Items Ingested by Tibetan Macaques at Mt. Primates 48:64–72, Li C, Li Q, Mei Q et al (2015) Pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic properties of icariin, the major bioactive component in Herba Epimedii. Primates in particular have received wide attention (e.g., Aureli et al. Anim Behav 68:1299–1311, Sparks DR, Malechek JC (1968) Estimating percentage dry weight in diets using a microscope technique. Huangshan are challenging, and to overcome these difficulties, the investigators produced a food list based on the analysis of 81 fecal samples collected over 10-day blocks, one block each during winter, spring, summer, and autumn between November 2011 and October 2012 (You et al. Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. During autumn, Preotella, which can utilize carbohydrates increased significantly. Tibetan macaques are classified as having a despotic, strongly linear, dominance style (Berman et al. The three following categories of health concern extracted from our analysis provide some important areas for future investigation. While it’s true that Buddhist monastic life was generally designed to be such a middle way, originally the Buddha allowed his monastics to go on alms … 2013). Leaves contain polysaccharides, polyphenols, essential oils, and numerous flavonoids (Jia et al. J Pharm Biomed Anal 123:63–73, Gotoh S (2000) Regional differences in the infection of wild Japanese macaques by gastrointestinal helminth parasites.  Icariin (prenylated flavonol glycoside),  Icariside II (Baohuoside I) and Baohuoside II, III, V, VI,  i6-ethoxyca lpogonium isoflavone A, durmillone, ichthynone, jamaicin, toxicaro l. Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. The plant food species consumed by YA1 troop members are listed in descending order of RD by family and species in Table. The reported activities in these items included antiparasitic, antibacterial, anticancer, febrifugal, antirheumatic, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, osteoprotective, reproductive stimulant, wound healing, and several other health-promoting activities. Data sorting and descriptive statistics were carried out using MicrosoftⓇ ExcelⓇ for Mac 2011 (Ver. pp 223-248 | 2016). Stump-tailed macaques are primarily frugivorous, but they eat many types of vegetation, such as seeds, leaves, and roots. Where do we go from here? Macmillan, London, Wallis J (1992) Socioenvironmental effects on timing of first postpartum cycles in chimpanzees. In their complex social system, females remain for life in their natal group, but males disperse shortly after their adolescence (at about 8 years old). Abstract. Using a previously published 50 species (61 item) food list of this troop, we conducted a pharmacological literature database search. The species epithet means "dog-head" in Greek, due to the dog-like shape of the muzzle and head. Plants For A Future Data Base (1996–2012). Traditionally used for coughs and colds, kidney and urethra problems, fever, headache, weakness, and dizziness. 2017). … 2005). 2015). Primates 41(3):291–298, Green MJ (1987) Diet composition and quality in Himalayan musk deer based on faecal analysis. In: Bekoff M (ed) Encyclopedia of human-animal relation, vol 2. (2012) report the seasonal influence of estrogenic plant consumption on hormonal and behavioral fluctuations in red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus) in Uganda. Cite as. J Ethnopharmacol 101:1–15, Lambert JE (2011) Primate nutritional ecology, feeding biology and diet at ecological and evolutionary scales. In closing, it should be noted that there are still other medicinal properties in the medicinal diet that have not been discussed in detail. Among them, O. apiostomum is noted to be responsible for perhaps the severest pathogenesis, in particular among previously infected (pre-immunized) individuals. That is births were concentrated seasonally in years when secondary compound concentration in plant foods were low (high food quality) and spread across the year when concentrations were high (low food quality). Behaviour 144:631–661, Berry AK, Kaufer D (2015) Stress, social behavior, and resilience: insights from rodents. The Tibetan macaque has a long, dense, brown fur with whiskers, but a hairless face. This species also promotes wound healing and possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumoral activity, as well as adjusts fat metabolism, and protects from cardiovascular disease (Zhou et al. 2014). In: Fleurentin J, Pelt J-M, Mazars G (eds) From the sources of knowledge to the medicines of the future. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 25:1–18, Gong T, Wang H-Q, Chen R-Y (2007) Isoflavones from vine stem of, Gong M-J, Han B, Wang S-M, Liang S-W (2016) Icariin reverses corticosterone- induced depression-like behavior, decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabolic network disturbances revealed by NMR-based metabonomics in rats. Later Garey et al. The Rhesus Macaque sometimes raids crop fields, gardens, and garbage … Naturwissenschaften 99:617–626, Hardy K, Buckley S, Huffman MA (2013) Neanderthal self-medication in context. Simpson SJ, Sibly RM, Lee KP, Behmer ST, Raubenheimer D (2004) Optimal foraging when regulating intake of multiple nutrients. Stress can be induced by both environmental and social factors, leading to physiological and behavioral imbalances (e.g., Takeshita et al. 2004). Though each species is different, most are herbivores, or feed primarily on plants. Data derived from You et al. Both factors present significant challenges to the survival and fitness of an individual. J Range Manag 45:148–152, Altizer S, Dobson A, Hosseini P, Pascual M, Rohani P (2006) Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Cancer preventative and cytotoxic properties. A full-grown macaque has long grayish brown fur with whiskers and a beard, but an infant has a coat of silver and black that changes … The Tibetan macaqueis the largest species of macaque and one of the largest monkeys in Asia. 2013). 1998; Krief et al. All the consumed medicinal plant items were leaves. 4 Tibetan macaque and tourist behaviors consisted of significantly more behaviors than tourist-only quent macaque behavior to follow a railing slap was a lunge/ and macaque-only sequences (M = 9.56 behaviors vs. 4.75 ground slap (10.8%). Rumble MA, Anderson SH (1993) Evaluating the microscopic fecal technique for estimating hard mast in turkey diets. 1992; wild turkeys Meleagris gallopavo, Rumble and Anderson 1993; Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus bieti). 2014; Berman et al. Contains flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, organic acids, and stigmasterols, Augments immunoglobulin M and G values and shows significant inhibitory effects on pathogenic Bacillus anthracis, Proteusbacillus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. Leaves contain isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, isovitexin, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside, and chrysoeriol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside. Proc Nutr Soc 62:371–381, Huffman MA (2007) Animals as a source of medicinal wisdom in indigenous societies. A decoction or tincture is used in the treatment of anemia, traumatic injuries, rheumatoid arthritis, hookworm disease, roundworm, and filariasis (Anonymous 1977; Yeung 1985). A decoction or tincture of leaves is used to treat hookworm, roundworm (nematodes), and filarial infections and is a treatment for amenorrhea, metrorrhagia, anemia, traumatic injuries, and rheumatoid arthritis (Anonymous 1977; Yeung 1985). These figures were redrawn, modified, and combined from previously published material for illustrative purposes (Li et al. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, The Behavioral Ecology of the Tibetan Macaque PLoS One 11(6):e0157108, Wu J, Du J, Xu C, Le J, Xu Y, Liu B, Dong J (2011) Icariin attenuates social defeat-induced down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor in mice. The Tibetan Macaque is a gregarious animal and lives in multi-male and multi-female groups. These compounds were found to be effective against pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains and biofilm infection of S. aureus (Neto et al. While more work is clearly needed to understand the different factors affecting the homeostasis of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) possibly leading to self-medication, we take this opportunity to evaluate their diet for its potential medicinal value. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Self-medication research focuses on understanding how animals respond to illness and how these behaviors can be transmitted across generations (Huffman 1997). 2004). Alpha males dominate the group, being those that are typicall… In: Breed MD, Moore J (eds) Encyclopedia of animal behavior, vol 3. For respiratory viruses, seasonal changes in humidity improve viral survival and increase opportunities for infection (Altizer et al. Previous studies indicated that in general the Tibetan macaque diet consists of leaves, fruits, grass, and to a lesser extent, flowers, roots, and insects 29,30. Do older members of the troop ingest items with these properties more often than younger ones? Running Press, Philadelphia, Anthony RG, Smith NS (1974) Comparison of rumen and fecal analysis to describe deer diets. 2012). Diet: Fruit, seeds, leaves, berries, flowers, some invertebrates The Tibetan macaque is not usually found in Tibet at all, but rather in the high subtropical forests of China and Vietnam. Significant antioxidant activity, Anthelmintic (hookworm, roundworm, filariasis) and antibacterial activity. In: Roeder JJ, Thierry B, Anderson JR, Herrenschmidt N (eds) Current primatology, Social development, learning and behavior, vol 2. 2010). In: XIVth Congress of the International Primatological Society Abstracts, Strassbourg, p 210, Glander KE (1980) Reproduction and population growth in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. (2013). Autumn exhibited the lowest alpha diversity and remarkably separated from the other three seasons for beta diversity. In these cases, encysted larvae are trapped in the intestinal mucosa by elevated immune response, causing the larvae to die inside the cyst, leading to inflammation, necrosis, and hemorrhaging, and in severe cases leading to secondary bacterial infections, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, weight loss, weakness, and mortality (Brack 2008). They will also, from time to time, eat insects, birds, or snakes. While some parasitic infections likely go unnoticed, when homeostasis is disrupted or threatened, it is expected to be in the best interest of the host to actively respond in ways to alleviate discomfort. In: Ebizuka Y (ed) Towards natural medicine research in the 21st century. It was also common for some species to have multiple ethnomedicinal uses. Males are larger sexes, usually weighing 13 to 19.5 kg (29 to 43 pounds) and 61 to 71 cm (24 to 28 in) in length, with a maximum re… Jpn J Physiol 27:305–319, Huffman MA (1997) Current evidence for self-medication in primates: a multidisciplinary perspective. At the proximate level, self-medication may be driven by the necessity to maintain physiological homeostasis to stay in relatively good condition (Foitova et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017:8329817. Knowing what immediate homeostasis challenges that impact individuals of a group can help to better understand how the medicinal components of their diet may work in an animal’s favor. 12.2). Adjusts fat metabolism. Ecol Lett 9:467–484, Anonymous (1977) A barefoot doctors manual. 2007). The Tibetan Macaque, also known as Pere David’s Macaque or the Short-tailed or Stump-tailed... Habitat. Ignoring the common items such as mounting, presenting etc., 20 categories of sexual behavior were described. Interestingly, of the species used by these people to treat symptoms of malaria, 89% are also eaten as food (Etkin and Ross 1983). Asian J Androl 7:381–388, Ma A, Qi S, Xu D et al (2004) Baohuoside-1, a novel immunosuppressive molecule, inhibits lymphocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. Contains abietane diterpenes showing remarkable activity against Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), Trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness in animals). In 1997, the concept of “medicinal foods” was formally introduced to primatology, adding the extra element of passive prevention of disease based on the presence of plants in the diet that contain noticeable bioactive, physiology-modifying properties, from which the animals ingesting them could potentially benefit (Huffman 1997). Noteworthy too about these understudied properties of the diet are the widespread anticancer (antitumoral), osteoprotective, cardiovascular protective, and neuroprotective effects. Associated with these activities are a variety of physiologically active secondary plant metabolites (Appendix). Only large species of proboscis monkeys and gray langurs can match their size in Asian monkeys. 1994; Oyeyemi et al. MAH is grateful to the organizers of the International Symposium “Nonhuman Primates: Insights into Human Behavior and Society” held in Mt. Huangshan exhibit high levels of sexuality inside and sometimes outside of the mating season (Li et al. They may also hunt freshwater crabs, frogs, bird eggs and insects. Integr Comp Biol 49(3):314–328, Fraser ON, Stahl D, Aureli F (2008) Stress reduction through consolation in chimpanzees. In a study by Whitten (1983), the timing of onset, duration, and ending of seasonal mating behavior in female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were closely correlated with the availability and ingestion of the flowers of Acacia elatior (Mimosaceae). Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 512–522, Landa P, Skalova L, Bousova I et al (2014), Lewis WH, Elvin-Lewis MPF (1977) Medical botany. The Tibetan Brown Bear, however, is found only on the Tibetan Plateau. To this end, diet selection is important to assure the proper balance of nutrients for energy, growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Do troop members ingest these items more in some seasons than others? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 356–431. 13. Exhibits antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidation activity. Int J Primatol 17(4):475–503, Huffman MA, Gotoh S, Turner LA et al (1997) Seasonal trends in intestinal nematode infection and medicinal plant use among chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Abietane diterpenoids synthesized by suspension-cultured cells displayed a wide spectrum of biological activities including antiparasitic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In: Campbell C, Fuentes A, MacKinnon K et al (eds) Primates in perspective. It is reported to have antitumor properties, and an extract of the leaves is made into a solution and used for treating burns and ulcers in the lower extremities. This study was designed to evaluate the potential for self-medication in Tibetan macaques. Springer, Tokyo, pp 323–344, MacIntosh AJJ, Hernandez A, Huffman MA (2010) Host age, sex, and reproductive seasonality affect nematode parasitism in wild Japanese macaques. In: Kala CP (ed) Medicinal plants and sustainable development. Medicinal properties of the 12 candidate “medicinal foods” in the diet of YA1 troop of Tibetan macaques at Mt. 14.7.2.). Yellow baboons have slim bodies with long arms and legs, and yellowish-brown hair. Notes. The first comprehensive book on the social behavior, cooperation, culture, cognition, and group dynamics of the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana)Recommended reading for undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the areas of anthropology, biology (zoology, animal behavior, … Zhu et al. 2007, see Fig. For a few months in spring, non-ejaculatory mating continues at low levels with a slight peak around April (Fig. The Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana), also known as the Chinese stump-tailed macaque or Milne-Edwards' macaque, is found from eastern Tibet east to Guangdong and north to Shaanxi in China.It has also been reported from northeastern India,. Anticancer activity, immunosuppressive action, and inhibition of lymphocyte activation. In: Nakamura M, Hosaka K, Itoh N, Zamma K (eds) Mahale chimpanzees—50 years of research. Timber Press, Portland, Gadgil M, Bossert WH (1970) Life historical consequences of natural selection. Nonspecific antiprotozoal activity was also detected and is likely due to the compound’s high cytotoxicity (Mothana et al. Eating Habits The Rhesus Macaque is omnivorous, and its diet varies across its habitat range and according to the season. Certainly in captivity they thrive when offered a diet which contains a relatively high proportion of vegetables and fruit. 2013, 2014; Wooddell et al. n = 50 species Medicinal food species consumed are highlighted in grey, Seasonal variation in the ingestion of food and medicinal food species (a) and average RD values of food and medicinal food species by YA1 troop. Compounds isolated from the leaves include Icariside II (Baohuoside I) and Baohuoside II, III, V, and VI (Ma et al. Academic, San Diego. 2015). Their diet consists of about 30 different plant species in total, although most of their diet is composed of only a few plants—in the winter, two species comprise a full 75% of their diet. Eating Habits The omnivorous Brown Bear can eat up to 11 to 16 kilograms (25 to 35 pounds) of food per day, or roughly two percent of its bod y weight. / Michael A. Huffman, Binghua Sun, and Jin-Hua Li 14. Their diet also varies based on what region they live in. Anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity was demonstrated (Landa et al. Academic, Oxford, pp 125–131, Huffman MA (2011) Primate self-medication. 2014) and significantly increases erectile function in castrated Wistar rats by increasing the percentage of smooth muscle and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the corpus cavernosum (Liu et al. From 172 chimpanzee food species, 43 (22%) items were found to be used to treat parasitic- or gastrointestinal-related illnesses by humans. Used as an aphrodisiac in Chinese traditional medicine, E. davidii is known as horny goat weed or rowdy lamb herb (Ma et al. A few species are omnivorous and also eat insects and invertebrates. Huangshan, List is modified from You et al. 2011; lemurs Eulemur fulvus, Negre et al. 2016). 2004). Nonetheless, this does not always inhibit animals from ingesting such plants in tolerable amounts for purposes other than nutrition. Eating Habits. It is suggested that when faced with conditions that require more direct intervention (health maintenance or self-medication), animals ingest even toxic plants for their medicinal benefits to regain health homeostasis. J R Soc Interface 8(63):1497e1509, Mellado M, Foote RH, Rodriquez A et al (1991) Botanical composition and nutrient content of diets selected by goats grazing on desert grassland in northern Mexico. These exercise help in balancing the body in three ways:-By strengthening the physical health of the body for doing work. 2006). Am J Phys Anthropol 53:25–36, Glander KE (1982) The impact of plant secondary compounds on primate feeding behavior. Statistical analyses for chi-square were carried out using an online calculator: https://www.socscistatistics.com/tests/chisquare2/Default2.aspx. The remaining five species were deciduous trees or shrubs, with leaves only in spring and summer months. Prog Brain Res 170:331–336. Plant food species, part(s) eaten, and seasonal variation of use in the YA1 troop of Tibetan macaques at Mt. are required. The Tibetan macaque lives in mixed sex groups. Seven of these species are evergreen trees, shrubs, or creepers, so leaves of these species are available year-round. Research has also shown that the diet of Tibetan macaques varies with the seasons, being characterized by a … This term was borrowed from the human ethnopharmacological literature (Etkin 1996). Potential for antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial activity is also noted (Ullah 2017) and is traditionally used for coughs and colds, kidney and urethra problems, fever, headache, weakness, and dizziness (Chang et al. Furthermore, evidence for the possible role of medicinal foods for controlling O. stephanostomum and other infections has also been suggested (Huffman 1997). , Tancredi LR ( eds ) the anthropology of medicine: from to. 2021 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V high proportion of vegetables and fruit of!, Ayensu ES ( 1985 ) medicinal plants and sustainable development Center, Badajoz, Ogawa H ( 1995a Triadic... Helminth parasites its diet consists mostly of fruit, but they eat many types of that... In mid-winter to around 25 °C in summer ( Fig levels with a peak... ) animals as a source of medicinal wisdom in indigenous societies: K! Xiaojuan Xu and Jayue Sun for their permission and support to tibetan macaque diet study in! Dry weight in diets using a microscope technique always inhibit animals from ingesting such plants in amounts... Encyclopedia of animal behavior, and numerous flavonoids ( Jia et al the... 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Has been argued that we have inherited many of the troop ingest items with these properties more often younger..., orientin, vitexin, isovitexin, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside, and self-medication in context Anal. Oxford, pp 125–131, Huffman MA ( 2010 ), Mt organizers of the species are available health! Descriptive statistics were carried out using MicrosoftⓇ ExcelⓇ for Mac 2011 ( Ver Wallis proposed that intensive foraging on skin! Of sexuality inside and sometimes outside of the mating season ( Li et al ( eds ) the Japanese by..., Whitten PL ( 1983 ) flowers, fertility and females have reported antiparasitic properties in wild domestic. €œMedicinal foods” in the animal self-medication literature displayed a wide spectrum of biological activities including antiparasitic, antibacterial,,! Berries are reported to be looked at more closely in the infection of Japanese. Levels with a slight peak around April ( Fig and sometimes outside of the muzzle and head and affecting! Schenepel BL ( 2015 ) Provisioning and its effects on reproduction in wild and domestic mammals first stage of requirement... Is very grateful to the compound’s high cytotoxicity ( Mothana et al other species of Macaque one... Also shown that the two subspecies eat may play a significant role in the 21st.! Concern extracted from our analysis provide some important areas for future investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in three:... And bactericidal activity Chin Med 37 ( 4 ):444–451, Usher G ( ). Publishing Group, Westport, CT, pp 125–131, Huffman MA ( 2007 ) animals a! To stress reduction has not yet received attention in this chapter is compelling enough to warrant further.... Also displays antidepressant activity and regulation of hippocampal neuroinflammation with tuberculosis, dysentery, and antibacterial properties through molecular! Smith NS ( 1974 ) Comparison of rumen and fecal analysis to describe deer diets taurus, Ovis! Future investigation in context 13.16 % ) consumption in winter energy, growth,,... Ulcers in the environment ( Huffman 1997 ) peak around April ( Fig juice of macerated leaves plastered... The Hausa of Nigeria, 30 % of the troop’s feeding behavior the! Sun for their support during the writing of this troop, we conducted a pharmacological literature database tibetan macaque diet... Purposes ( Li et al Renzhouhai Area of Sichuan Province medicinal properties of the future,! The behavior of animals cerebrovascular disease, social behavior, and resilience: Insights human! Golden snub-nosed monkey ( Rhinopithecus roxellana ) is an Old World: Macaque., Zamma K ( eds ) Primates in perspective also shown that the diet Yulinkeng..., Binghua Sun, and bactericidal activity are evergreen trees, shrubs, or snakes Mifflin... Also feed, to a lesser extent, on insects, roots, leaves, berries, buds roots! Time to time, eat insects and invertebrates, Berenbaum MR ( 1992 ) Socioenvironmental on! 2011 ) primate self-medication aggressive viral infection, whose virulence was perhaps exacerbated by high stress levels dry!: Wish SA, Utami SS, Setia TM et al malaria ), Trypanosoma brucei sleeping. In tolerable amounts for purposes other than Nutrition, occurs in chimpanzees three ways: -By strengthening the physical of. Secondary compounds on primate feeding behavior in the diet of woolly spider (! ( 1976 ) phytoestrogens: adverse effects on reproduction in California quail alpha diversity and composition varied by season 1984. Is a central activity of all medicinal foods was assigned to L. coreana RDÂ.:291€“298, green and dry grass, and bactericidal activity microbiota in a cohort wild!, sheep Ovis aries, Angora goats, Alipayo et al ( eds ) Primates perspective..., lowest: −13 deer based on a plant food species they ingest are also used a... ( 61 item ) food list of this investigation are Tibetan macaques Mt! Shows a strong connection between medicinal food consumption and parasite infection and or reproductive events this! Also reported to have multiple ethnomedicinal uses of vegetation that the diet of macaques! Macintosh and Huffman 2010 ) self-medication: passive prevention and active treatment ( )! Diet selection is important to assure the proper balance of nutrients for energy, growth, maintenance and. Occasionally bamboo or grass Center, Badajoz, Ogawa H ( eds ) from the sources of to... An individual groups of semi-commensalMacaca thibetana along the trail on the bodies of smallpox,... Trees, shrubs, or snakes regions have access to different types of that!, diuretic, and antibacterial activity argued that we have inherited many of species! First postpartum cycles in chimpanzees ( Huffman 2016 ) phytoestrogens: adverse effects on in. The subfamily Colobinae Mazars G ( 1974 ) Comparison of rumen and fecal analysis to describe deer diets (. Pharmacological potential of Yulinkeng 1 ( YA1 ) troop was based on faecal analysis 9:467–484, (! Have slim bodies with long arms and legs, and occasionally bamboo or grass Coxsackie virus,., 2011 ; Ndagurwa 2012 tibetan macaque diet effect of seasonal dietary change on micro- and mycobiota composition Tibetan., diet selection is important to assure the proper balance of nutrients for energy, growth maintenance. Environmental and social factors, leading to physiological and Behavioral imbalances ( e.g., Aureli al! Order of RD by family and species in Table % across these troops. Limited details are available about health and diseases affecting Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana ) its adult color the. A gregarious animal and lives in mixed sex groups available, the remaining 24 % ) in total significant... For infection ( Altizer et al prepared from identified plant species in Table illness! Of reproduction in California quail Usher G ( eds ) Orangutans—ecology, evolution, behavior and conservation this not! To assure the proper balance of nutrients for energy, growth, maintenance, and properties! To be an important folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes values season. They eat many types of vegetation that the two subspecies eat these ingested items, 198 ( from 135 )... These figures were redrawn, modified, and chrysoeriol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and Ayensu 1985.... Diversity and composition varied by season listed in descending order of RD by family and species in Table (! Hominin and pre-agrarian human worlds Bear ’ s Macaque or the Short-tailed or stump-tailed... habitat high proportion these... To be estrogenic species RD values of all living organisms coughing in patients with tuberculosis, dysentery and! And also eat insects and invertebrates while winter had the highest RD values of tibetan macaque diet! Reported here for 12 species ( 61 item ) food list of this plant from watching the behavior animals! Lett 9:467–484, Anonymous ( 1977 ) a survey of reproductive function, overall health, and.... Of herbal medicine trademark of Elsevier B.V wooly spider monkeys ( health concern from... Metabolites ( Appendix ) 15.3 °C ( highest: 34.2 °C, lowest: −13 food! V. amygdalina demonstrate a broad range of antiparasitic activities ( e.g., Takeshita et al lymphocyte activation of Province...

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