Forward biasing a PN Junction diode . In this paper formation a PN junction diode is explained by VLSI fabrication steps which are stated below. Thus p-n junction allows electric current to flow in one direction only. P-N Junction Diode (a) Construction It is a two-terminal device consisting of a P-N junction formed either in Ge or Si crystal. Figure 68: Diode pn junction. The P-and N-type regions are referred to as anode and cathode respectively. They are referred to as PHOTO-ELECTRONS and PHOTO-HOLES The applied voltage separates the photo-carriers attracting electrons toward 52.1 (b), arrow-head indicates the conventional direction of current flow 3 Introduction to Electronic Devices, Fall 2006, Dr. D. Knipp Diodes 3.4 Deviations from the ideal Diode 3.4.1 Influence of Generation If one side of a single crystal of pure semiconductor (Ge or Si) is doped with acceptor impurity atoms and the other side is doped with donor impurity atoms, a PN junction is formed as shown in Fig P region has a high concentration of holes and N region contains a large number of electrons. You just need to take a battery whose values can be varied from (o to V volts), connect its positive terminal to the p-side of pn junction diode and then connect the negative terminal of battery to the n-side of the pn junction diode. 3.3.5 Minority carrier in the neutral region of a pn-junction 3.3.6 Ideal diode equation 3.3.7 The asymmetric pn-junction / p+n diode. We provide few finer electrodes on the top of the p-type semiconductor layer. A very thin layer of p-type semiconductor is grown on a relatively thicker n-type semiconductor. Silicon wafer cleaning (RCA process) In the IC processing wafers it is necessary to maintain the purity and perfection of material. The semiconductor diode PN junction with reverse bias 2 A specific arrangement of diodes can convert AC to pulsating DC, hence it is sometimes also called as a rectifier. The real diode: genération ‐recombinaison mechanismin depletionlayer 21 n p n pn n r i i 2 1 2 We know that If we suppose npconstant in depleted regionand np>> (in forward bias) , the rate rismax when n=p, and itcan be rewritten ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 exp() kT eVa p W N n W N p W P n W P n i 2 n i kT n eV r i a 2 PN Junction diode. A PN-junction diode is formed when a p-type semiconductor is fused to an n-type semiconductor creating a potential barrier voltage across the diode junction The effect described in the previous tutorial is achieved without any external voltage being applied to the actual PN junction resulting in the junction being in a state of equilibrium. Avalanche break down:-If both p-side and n-side of the diode are lightly doped, depletion region at the junction widens. Its circuit symbol is shown in Fig. For All Subject Study Materials – Click Here. The Use of PN Junction as Diode: The action of the P-N junction is similar to that of a vacuum diode. 52.1 (a). A diode consists of a single pn junction, Figure 68 . It allows the flow of electric current through it when it is forward biased and does not allow the current to flow through it when it is reverse biased. Diode is a basic element in electronic and digital circuit. p- n diode applications: Photodetectors P-n junction can detect light when reverse biased p-type n-type When the light illuminates the p-n junction, the photons energy RELEASES free electrons and holes. 3.0.APPARATUS The following apparatus were used in the experiment: 1) Resistor: 10k-20k. A zener diode when reverse biased can either undergo avalanche break down or zener break down. 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