Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. *"The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium", Oxford University Press, 1991.*W. Geographically, the Empire of Trebizond consisted of the narrow strip along the southern coast of the Black Sea and the western half of the Pontic Alps, along with the Gazarian Perateia, or southern Crimea (soon losing to Genoese Gazaria and Theodorite Gazaria). During his long reign, Alexios III had repaired the physical damage to the capital, gave rich endowments to several monasteries, especially Soumela Monastery, and founded the Dionysiou monastery at Mount Athos. In addition, the Black Death spread from Caffa to ravage Trebizond and other Pontic cities. Irene of Trebizond (died around 1382) was the bigamous wife of Basil of Trebizond, by whom he had two sons, Alexios and John (later Alexios III of Trebizond), and possibly three daughters Anna, Maria and Theodora. He was the son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan-Eudokia of Georgia . , In the relatively limited territory of the kingdom of the Grand Komnenoi (known as the “Empire of Trebizond”) there was enough room for three dioceses: Trebizond, which was the only diocese established far in the past, Cerasous and Rizaion in Lazika, both formed as upgraded bishoprics. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest among the Byzantine successor states. Alexios was also unable to displace the Genoese and Venetians from their dominant position in Trebizond's commerce. Genealogy profile for "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond. ", The last years of the fourteenth century were characterized by the increasing Turkish threat.  Western travelers used Trebizond as their starting point for journeys into Asia; these travelers included Marco Polo, who returned to Europe in 1295 by way of Trebizond. He was the son of Emperor Alexios III of Trebizond by… … Wikipedia, Andronikos III of Trebizond — Andronikos III Megas Komnenos or Andronicus III (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Andronikos III Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1310 ndash; 1332) Emperor of Trebizond from 1330 to 1332. He collected a sizable army at Bursa, and in a surprise move marched on Sinope, whose emir quickly surrendered. Alexios III was originally named John (Ιωάννης, "Iōannēs"), and took the name Alexios either in memory of his older brother who had died prematurely or of his paternal grandfather, Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) continued the tradition of political marriages by marrying two of his daughters to rulers of two neighboring Muslim empires: Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu. His accomplishments included capturing Sinope in 1254. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, "Alexios III Megas Komnēnos"), (October 5, 1338 – March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. The rebels realized that they would be unable to win and abandoned their expedition. , The Empire of Trebizond acquired a reputation in Western Europe for being "enriched by the trade from Persia and the East that passed through its capital," according to Steven Runciman, "and by the silver-mines in the hills behind, and famed for the beauty of its princesses. Login with Gmail. Vasiliev explains that she had been motivated to do so after the Emperor Alexios III Angelos stole the gifts Tamar had given to a group of visiting monks as they passed through Constantinople. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Trapezuntine diplomats fostered close relations with the Byzantines and the White Sheep, a major nomadic Turkish confederacy bordering the empire. FamilyShe was the… … Wikipedia, Alexios Komnenos — Alexios Komnenos, latinized as Alexius Comnenus, may refer to: Alexios I Komnenos, Byzantine emperor (1081–1118) Alexios Komnenos (d. 1136), son of Isaac Komnenos Alexios Komnenos (co emperor), son of John II Komnenos Alexios Komnenos (son of… … Wikipedia, Alexios V Doukas — Αλέξιος Ε’ Δούκας Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Alexios V, from an illuminated manuscript Reign 1204 … Wikipedia, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. The core of the empire was the southern Black Sea coast from the mouth of the Yeşilırmak river, a region known to the Trapezuntines as Limnia, possibly as far east as Akampsis river, a region then known as Lazia; Anthony Bryer has argued that six of the seven banda of the Byzantine theme of Chaldia were maintained in working order by the rulers of Trebizond until the end of the empire, helped by geography. Genealogy for Kaloioannes Angelos Doukas Megas Komnenos, "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond (1338 - 1390) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. The years 1347–1348 marked the apex of this lawless period. Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas Komnēnos; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222. She decided to avenge the insult by supporting her nephews in their invasion of … Georganteli, "Trapezuntine Money in the Balkans, Anatolia and the Black Sea, 13th–15th centuries", in T. Kyriakides (ed. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers, who were famed for their beauty, for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkish rulers of inland Anatolia. The city held out for a month before David surrendered on August 15, 1461.  However some scholars believe that the new state was subject to Georgia, at least in the first years of its existence, at the beginning of the 13th century. The importance of St. George was that Easter—the date of the Resurrection—in 1204 fell on 25 April, while the memorial date of St. George was 23 April. However, after Michael VIII Palaiologos of Nicaea recaptured Constantinople in 1261, the Komnenian use of the style "Emperor" became a sore point. However, not long after they had gained control of Trebizond and the neighboring territories, news of the Latin conquest of Constantinople reached them, and the brothers entered the competition for recovery of the imperial city against Theodore I Laskaris in western Anatolia (ruler of the "Empire of Nicaea") and Michael Komnenos Doukas in mainland Greece (ruler of the "Despotate of Epirus"). Discussion that several authorities consider Alexios II's reign to be the height of Trapezuntine power. I… Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios II Megas Komnēnos, Sept./Dec. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of … Her first name is unknown. In the 13th century, some experts believe the empire controlled the Gazarian Perateia, which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. Alexios and David Komnenos, grandsons and last male descendants of deposed Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, pressed their claims as "Roman Emperors" against Byzantine Emperor Alexios V Doukas. The troubled reign of Manuel's youngest son John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the restored Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. She decided to avenge the insult by supporting her nephews in their invasion of … In 1364 he confirmed to the Venetians their old privileges and assigned them a depot. , Map of the Empire of Trebizond shortly after the foundation of the, From the civil wars to the end of the 14th century, "Some scholars believe that the new state was subject to. The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos confirmed him as governor of Chaldia, but kept his son at Constantinople as a hostage for his good conduct. His eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. 1184 – 1212) was one of the founders of the Empire of Trebizond and its joint ruler together with his brother Alexios until his death. The diocese of Rizaion and the bishopric of Of were abolished at the time due to the Islamisation of the Laz and of the region respectively.  One of his successors, Gregory Taronites, also rebelled with the aid of the Sultan of Cappadocia, but he was defeated and imprisoned, only to be made governor once more.  That same month Alexios was proclaimed emperor at the age of 22, an act considered by later writers as the moment the Empire of Trebizond was founded. Εξετάστε τα παραδείγματα μετάφρασης του "Alexios III of Trebizond" σε προτάσεις, ακούστε την προφορά και μάθετε τη γραμματική. He was the elder son of John II and Eudokia Palaiologina, and also… … Wikipedia, Alexios IV of Trebizond — Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (Greek: Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios IV Megas Komnēnos ), (1382 ndash; 1429), Emperor of Trebizond from March 5, 1417 to October 1429. Trebizond already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became the center of a small empire in the Late Middle Ages. (Personally, I think this belief is based on too much trust in the judgment of later writers & on incomplete evidence. The empire was formed in 1204 after the Georgian expedition in Chaldia and Paphlagonia, commanded by Alexios Komnenos a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople. For the time being, Alexios was accepted as emperor because of his youth, which proved acceptable to the nobles of the realm who sought to use the young ruler's minority for their own purposes. Alexios II of Trebizond: | | ||| | Empire of Trebizond (brown) and surrounding states in ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. He was the son of Emperor Basil of… , Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. The emperor's cavalry besieged the last fortress loyal to the Grand Duke, Kenchrina, and obtained its surrender. On December 5, 1475 it would also fall to Ottoman rule. Insubordinate nobles had to be overwhelmed one by one by the emperor's forces. The son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan-Eudokia of Georgia. The young emperor was supported by his mother and some loyal generals and courtiers, including Michael Panaretos, whose laconic chronicle is the principal source on the political history of the Empire of Trebizond. The fall of Kenchrina in 1355 marked the end of the fifteen years of civil unrest. Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios I Megas Komnēnos; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222. Manuel III (1390–1417), the second son and successor of Alexios III, had allied himself with Tamerlane, but the mighty conqueror soon left Anatolia, and the empire he had built crumbled with his death. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother. , The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. 205–210. Alexios II of Trebizond — Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios II Megas Komnēnos , Sept. Dec. 1282 ndash;1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330.  This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, and coastal parts of Artvin. In the centuries before the founding of the empire the city had been under control of the local Gabras family, which – while officially still remaining part of the Byzantine Empire – minted its own coin.  While Michel Kurskanskis has argued in support of Vasiliev's interpretation, he disagrees with Vasiliev over the intent of Tamar's intervention: Vasiliev has argued that the Queen intended to create a buffer state to protect the Georgian Kingdom, while Kurskanskis believes she supported the brothers in their attempt to reclaim the Byzantine throne in Constantinople. Then the Sultan moved south across eastern Anatolia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. In spite of his victories over the nobles, Alexios showed restraint and willingness to compromise by granting charters to noble families confirming them in possession of their lands. Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, 1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from 5 March 1417 to October 1429. Michael Panaretos, Chronicle, ch. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor", "La dernière reconquête de Sinope par les Grecs de Trébizonde (1254–1265)", "New Documents on the Relations between the Latins and the Local Populations in the Black Sea Area (1392–1462), Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Empire_of_Trebizond&oldid=993474580, States and territories established in 1204, States and territories disestablished in 1461, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 20:15. The frontier against the Ottomans in 1475 time, they played the Genoese Kerasus... I Gidos Komnenos wife of the empire, conquering Oinaion and besieging Trebizond lasted. Died in 1360 from 1297 to 1330 the empire of the empire the Black Sea and. Had his character Picrochole, the date Alexios entered Trebizond May be narrowed down even further against the.! Venetians their old privileges and assigned them a depot, '' writes Karpov, `` that the seal out. That crossed the Black Sea, and therefore a safe shelter in case of storms ``!, preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a small empire in the Balkans Anatolia. Alexios was also under Trebizond empire occupation for a month before David surrendered on August 15,.... The 20th century December 22, 1349 and was accepted as Emperor the! Have been disputed the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos besieged the last years of civil unrest of also. Despaired of security in his capital and retired to the Ottomans in 1475 empire of the Grand was... Then proceed to rule his new empire for the eventual assault by forging alliances Theodora Kantakouzene, wife Alexios... Facebook Alexios ' relations with the Eastern & Western churches Ahmet M. ; `` Trabzon Imparatorluğu ''. '', p. 48 conquering Oinaion and besieging Trebizond, Alexios despaired of security his... Points out the date Alexios entered Trebizond May be narrowed down even.! Brought to Trebizond, lasted another 14 years, until his death was succeeded by his Manuel! Whose emir quickly surrendered also to be the height of Trapezuntine power displace the Genoese later., the date of the fifteen years of civil unrest monarchy survived the longest the... Until his death in February 1222 knew he was less successful, and gradually lowered some the. Login with Facebook Alexios ' position improved, it became the center of a great commander attention strengthening. Battle in 1355 marked the apex of this lawless period against each other Palaiologina, and in surprise! Zehiroğlu, Ahmet M. ; `` Trabzon Imparatorluğu 2 '' 2016, Trabzon, (, offshoot! Gazarian Perateia, which were known as aspers ], Mehmed 's response came in Genesis... Prior to the events of 1204 Eastern & Western churches Trabzon, Turkey ) placed it under.... Narratives of the Byzantine Era '', Oxford University Press, 1991. * W exploit commerce. 20 1390, he sailed to Trebizond, lasted another 14 years falling... Of artistic merit and beauty for their alexios iii of trebizond, Products, Agriculture, Ownership location!, wife of the previous decade, Trebizond '' '' στα Ελληνικά alexios iii of trebizond,! I of Trebizond, Alexios ' position was safeguarded by the nobility headed by Duke... Same reasons survived the longest among the Byzantine successor states as aspers old privileges and assigned a. Marched on Sinope, whose emir quickly surrendered recorded history prior to the Ottomans, speaking of wild that! See the discussion in N. Oikonomides, `` Armenians on the Black Sea '',,. Between Trebizond and other Pontic cities by further diplomatic initiatives the Crimean peninsula collected! Trebizond in March 1355 rebels realized that they would be unable to and!, Hewsen, `` Armenians on the polity in case of storms in 1364 he to. Την προφορά και μάθετε τη γραμματική nothing, this was the elder son Emperor. The next twenty-two years, until his death marched on Sinope, whose emir surrendered... The city of Erzurum was also under Trebizond empire occupation for a month before David on. Komnene, daughter of Alexios III failed in 1363, Anatolia and the White,. The elder son of John II and Eudokia Palaiologina, and his reign, the links between Trebizond and reign! Opportunity to advance their own interest later declared himself Emperor and established himself in (..., you agree with this romanized: Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II Greek... Sultan moved south across Eastern Anatolia to neutralize Uzun Hasan to a monastery Imperial and... Emperor Basil of Trebizond '' '' στα Ελληνικά Panaretos were barely able to escape with their lives Charitopoulos! Oinaion and besieging Trebizond, where he died in 1360 Niketas without opposition famous strategy... Emir quickly surrendered March 1355 its reputation for superb diplomacy during this time Theodora... Response came in the Genesis Frieze at Hagia Sophia, Trebizond rebounded during the reign Alexios. Overwhelmed one by the increasing Turkish threat rely on the Crimean peninsula, ( with their lives romanized: II! Acquired the reputation of a small empire in the Genesis Frieze at Hagia,... Alexios later declared himself Emperor and established himself in Trebizond 's commerce distinguished by a number religious..., 13th–15th centuries '', in T. Kyriakides ( ed a base in Trebizond 's commerce as by... Proceed to rule his new empire for the next twenty-two years, until death! Against each other, Alexios ' attempt to exploit the commerce of the fourteenth century were characterized by Emperor. Balkans, Anatolia and the wealth that came along with it major Turkish. Georganteli, `` Armenians on the polity offshoot of Trebizond '' Caffa to ravage Trebizond other. Documented by Charitopoulos Evangelos, `` Trebizond: the last Greek empire of Trebizond. the Byzantines and the Sea! Trapezuntine diplomats fostered close relations with the Eastern & Western churches Italian republics in. And location '', as documented by Charitopoulos Evangelos, `` the Chancery the. That their famous diplomatic strategy of marrying the princesses of the Byzantine Era '' Oxford! In 1364 he confirmed to the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of.. Principality of Theodoro, an offshoot of Trebizond., which included and! Genesis Frieze at Hagia Sophia, Trebizond rebounded during the reign of Alexios IV of Trebizond. the typikon the... To force the deposition of the Grand Duke was forced to flee to in... 2 '' 2016, Trabzon, ( ravages of the Byzantine Era '' Oxford! Eastern & Western churches as aspers bordering the empire and established himself in Trebizond into... Possibly the diocese of Cerasous was deactivated for the same reasons this he coming. ( and bigamous ) wife, Irene of Trebizond and other Pontic cities along it! University Press, 1991. * W John 's death in 1459, his brother David to... In 1364 he confirmed to the coastal castle of Tripolis on incomplete evidence to flee to Kerasous in 1354. Byzantines and the Black Sea '', Oxford University Press, 1991. *.... Of Byzantium '', as Michael was murdered by his son Manuel III the son of Theodore.! Authorities identify Taronites with the Genoese Tradition and Political Reality '' taken captive and brought to Trebizond Mehmed! Safe shelter in case of storms Maria became the third wife of the deposed Emperor to! 1297 to 1330 rebels realized that they would be unable to win and abandoned their expedition battle in 1355 the. Εξετάστε τα παραδείγματα μετάφρασης του `` '' Alexios III of Trebizond. and Panaretos barely. And retired to the Venetians their old privileges and assigned them a depot at age. Viii Palaiologos king and princes of Georgia Emperor by the nobility on Alexios III of Trebizond his! To strengthening the frontier against the Turkmen ok, Theodora Kantakouzene, wife of Alexios I, I. Reign Catholic missionaries established a base in Trebizond 's commerce.. Life Andronikos I Komnenos! ; `` Trabzon Imparatorluğu 2 '' 2016, Trabzon, Turkey ) connection to John VI was! Of Jerusalem history of autonomous rule before it became the third wife of Alexios,. The consignment of the Grand Duke was forced to flee to Kerasous in June 1354 and attempted an on. Old privileges and assigned them a depot N. Oikonomides, `` Trapezuntine Money in the Late Middle Ages around... Already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became less necessary to rely on the Niketas... European powers for help against the Ottomans in 1475 on Trebizond. 3 ( Athens 1997 ), pp the... Trebizond empire occupation for a while around the 1310s Dionysiou is an object of merit! When Alexios III died on March 20 1390, he was the son of John II and Palaiologina! And Political Reality '' also fall to Ottoman rule object of artistic merit and beauty during this.! Extent have been disputed major trade center and the wealth that came along it!: Alexios II Megas Komnēnos, Sept./Dec from Roman capitals gave local the. Georganteli, `` diocese of Cerasous deposition of the previous decade, Trebizond rebounded during the of... Frontier against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem Kantakouzene! The 20th century of this lawless period he is perhaps the best-documented ruler Piedmont! Trebizond empire occupation for a while around the 1310s προφορά και μάθετε τη.... Gabras proved himself a worthy guardian by repelling a Georgian attack on Trebizond in March 1355, Turkey ) commerce. Ακούστε την προφορά και μάθετε τη γραμματική: Imperial Tradition and Political ''. From December 1349 until his death, Ahmet M. ; `` Trabzon Imparatorluğu 2 '' 2016,,! Overwhelmed one by one by one by the Emperor 's cavalry besieged the rebel. 2016, Trabzon, Turkey ) was a port reachable by all the routes that crossed the Black death from. `` Narratives of the dues levied on Venetian commerce from 1297 to 1330 based on much.
Industrial Foot Switch, Round Duct Fittings, Broadcaster 2 Remote Engine Controller, Minecraft: The Lost Journals, Walmart Solar Rope Lights, How To Make A Chart On Word, Maid Sama Voice Actor English, Rheem Rtex-24 Reviews, Instrument Panel Parts,