Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. *"The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium", Oxford University Press, 1991.*W. Geographically, the Empire of Trebizond consisted of the narrow strip along the southern coast of the Black Sea and the western half of the Pontic Alps, along with the Gazarian Perateia, or southern Crimea (soon losing to Genoese Gazaria and Theodorite Gazaria). During his long reign, Alexios III had repaired the physical damage to the capital, gave rich endowments to several monasteries, especially Soumela Monastery, and founded the Dionysiou monastery at Mount Athos. In addition, the Black Death spread from Caffa to ravage Trebizond and other Pontic cities. Irene of Trebizond (died around 1382) was the bigamous wife of Basil of Trebizond, by whom he had two sons, Alexios and John (later Alexios III of Trebizond), and possibly three daughters Anna, Maria and Theodora. He was the son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan-Eudokia of Georgia . [41], In the relatively limited territory of the kingdom of the Grand Komnenoi (known as the “Empire of Trebizond”) there was enough room for three dioceses: Trebizond, which was the only diocese established far in the past, Cerasous and Rizaion in Lazika, both formed as upgraded bishoprics. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest among the Byzantine successor states. Alexios was also unable to displace the Genoese and Venetians from their dominant position in Trebizond's commerce. Genealogy profile for "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond. "[36], The last years of the fourteenth century were characterized by the increasing Turkish threat. [33] Western travelers used Trebizond as their starting point for journeys into Asia; these travelers included Marco Polo, who returned to Europe in 1295 by way of Trebizond. He was the son of Emperor Alexios III of Trebizond by… …   Wikipedia, Andronikos III of Trebizond — Andronikos III Megas Komnenos or Andronicus III (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Andronikos III Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1310 ndash; 1332) Emperor of Trebizond from 1330 to 1332. He collected a sizable army at Bursa, and in a surprise move marched on Sinope, whose emir quickly surrendered. Alexios III was originally named John (Ιωάννης, "Iōannēs"), and took the name Alexios either in memory of his older brother who had died prematurely or of his paternal grandfather, Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) continued the tradition of political marriages by marrying two of his daughters to rulers of two neighboring Muslim empires: Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu. His accomplishments included capturing Sinope in 1254. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, "Alexios III Megas Komnēnos"), (October 5, 1338 – March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. The rebels realized that they would be unable to win and abandoned their expedition. [42], The Empire of Trebizond acquired a reputation in Western Europe for being "enriched by the trade from Persia and the East that passed through its capital," according to Steven Runciman, "and by the silver-mines in the hills behind, and famed for the beauty of its princesses. Login with Gmail. Vasiliev explains that she had been motivated to do so after the Emperor Alexios III Angelos stole the gifts Tamar had given to a group of visiting monks as they passed through Constantinople. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Trapezuntine diplomats fostered close relations with the Byzantines and the White Sheep, a major nomadic Turkish confederacy bordering the empire. FamilyShe was the… …   Wikipedia, Alexios Komnenos — Alexios Komnenos, latinized as Alexius Comnenus, may refer to: Alexios I Komnenos, Byzantine emperor (1081–1118) Alexios Komnenos (d. 1136), son of Isaac Komnenos Alexios Komnenos (co emperor), son of John II Komnenos Alexios Komnenos (son of… …   Wikipedia, Alexios V Doukas — Αλέξιος Ε’ Δούκας Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Alexios V, from an illuminated manuscript Reign 1204 …   Wikipedia, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. The core of the empire was the southern Black Sea coast from the mouth of the Yeşilırmak river, a region known to the Trapezuntines as Limnia, possibly as far east as Akampsis river, a region then known as Lazia; Anthony Bryer has argued that six of the seven banda of the Byzantine theme of Chaldia were maintained in working order by the rulers of Trebizond until the end of the empire, helped by geography. Genealogy for Kaloioannes Angelos Doukas Megas Komnenos, "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond (1338 - 1390) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. The years 1347–1348 marked the apex of this lawless period. Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas Komnēnos; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222. She decided to avenge the insult by supporting her nephews in their invasion of … Georganteli, "Trapezuntine Money in the Balkans, Anatolia and the Black Sea, 13th–15th centuries", in T. Kyriakides (ed. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers, who were famed for their beauty, for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkish rulers of inland Anatolia. The city held out for a month before David surrendered on August 15, 1461. [23] However some scholars believe that the new state was subject to Georgia, at least in the first years of its existence, at the beginning of the 13th century. The importance of St. George was that Easter—the date of the Resurrection—in 1204 fell on 25 April, while the memorial date of St. George was 23 April. However, after Michael VIII Palaiologos of Nicaea recaptured Constantinople in 1261, the Komnenian use of the style "Emperor" became a sore point. However, not long after they had gained control of Trebizond and the neighboring territories, news of the Latin conquest of Constantinople reached them, and the brothers entered the competition for recovery of the imperial city against Theodore I Laskaris in western Anatolia (ruler of the "Empire of Nicaea") and Michael Komnenos Doukas in mainland Greece (ruler of the "Despotate of Epirus"). Discussion that several authorities consider Alexios II's reign to be the height of Trapezuntine power. I… Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios II Megas Komnēnos, Sept./Dec. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of … Her first name is unknown. In the 13th century, some experts believe the empire controlled the Gazarian Perateia, which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. Alexios and David Komnenos, grandsons and last male descendants of deposed Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, pressed their claims as "Roman Emperors" against Byzantine Emperor Alexios V Doukas. The troubled reign of Manuel's youngest son John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the restored Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. She decided to avenge the insult by supporting her nephews in their invasion of … In 1364 he confirmed to the Venetians their old privileges and assigned them a depot. [46], Map of the Empire of Trebizond shortly after the foundation of the, From the civil wars to the end of the 14th century, "Some scholars believe that the new state was subject to. The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos confirmed him as governor of Chaldia, but kept his son at Constantinople as a hostage for his good conduct. His eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. 1184 – 1212) was one of the founders of the Empire of Trebizond and its joint ruler together with his brother Alexios until his death. The diocese of Rizaion and the bishopric of Of were abolished at the time due to the Islamisation of the Laz and of the region respectively. [20] One of his successors, Gregory Taronites, also rebelled with the aid of the Sultan of Cappadocia, but he was defeated and imprisoned, only to be made governor once more. [26] That same month Alexios was proclaimed emperor at the age of 22, an act considered by later writers as the moment the Empire of Trebizond was founded. Εξετάστε τα παραδείγματα μετάφρασης του "Alexios III of Trebizond" σε προτάσεις, ακούστε την προφορά και μάθετε τη γραμματική. He was the elder son of John II and Eudokia Palaiologina, and also… …   Wikipedia, Alexios IV of Trebizond — Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (Greek: Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios IV Megas Komnēnos ), (1382 ndash; 1429), Emperor of Trebizond from March 5, 1417 to October 1429. Trebizond already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became the center of a small empire in the Late Middle Ages. (Personally, I think this belief is based on too much trust in the judgment of later writers & on incomplete evidence. The empire was formed in 1204 after the Georgian expedition in Chaldia and Paphlagonia, commanded by Alexios Komnenos a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople. For the time being, Alexios was accepted as emperor because of his youth, which proved acceptable to the nobles of the realm who sought to use the young ruler's minority for their own purposes. Alexios II of Trebizond: | | ||| | Empire of Trebizond (brown) and surrounding states in ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. He was the son of Emperor Basil of… [40], Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. The emperor's cavalry besieged the last fortress loyal to the Grand Duke, Kenchrina, and obtained its surrender. On December 5, 1475 it would also fall to Ottoman rule. Insubordinate nobles had to be overwhelmed one by one by the emperor's forces. The son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan-Eudokia of Georgia. The young emperor was supported by his mother and some loyal generals and courtiers, including Michael Panaretos, whose laconic chronicle is the principal source on the political history of the Empire of Trebizond. The fall of Kenchrina in 1355 marked the end of the fifteen years of civil unrest. Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios I Megas Komnēnos; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222. Manuel III (1390–1417), the second son and successor of Alexios III, had allied himself with Tamerlane, but the mighty conqueror soon left Anatolia, and the empire he had built crumbled with his death. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother. [19], The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. 205–210. Alexios II of Trebizond — Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios II Megas Komnēnos , Sept. Dec. 1282 ndash;1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. [18] This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, and coastal parts of Artvin. In the centuries before the founding of the empire the city had been under control of the local Gabras family, which – while officially still remaining part of the Byzantine Empire – minted its own coin. [24] While Michel Kurskanskis has argued in support of Vasiliev's interpretation, he disagrees with Vasiliev over the intent of Tamar's intervention: Vasiliev has argued that the Queen intended to create a buffer state to protect the Georgian Kingdom, while Kurskanskis believes she supported the brothers in their attempt to reclaim the Byzantine throne in Constantinople. Then the Sultan moved south across eastern Anatolia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. In spite of his victories over the nobles, Alexios showed restraint and willingness to compromise by granting charters to noble families confirming them in possession of their lands. Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, 1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from 5 March 1417 to October 1429. Michael Panaretos, Chronicle, ch. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor", "La dernière reconquête de Sinope par les Grecs de Trébizonde (1254–1265)", "New Documents on the Relations between the Latins and the Local Populations in the Black Sea Area (1392–1462), Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Empire_of_Trebizond&oldid=993474580, States and territories established in 1204, States and territories disestablished in 1461, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 20:15. The frontier against the Ottomans in 1475 time, they played the Genoese Kerasus... I Gidos Komnenos wife of the empire, conquering Oinaion and besieging Trebizond lasted. 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